The ESIP Federation is governed by its Assembly, a group that represents all partner organizations. Each partner, or member, organization has one vote in the Assembly. The Assembly annually elects its leadership, which consists of a President, Vice President, ESIP Type Representatives and Committee Chairs. This leadership collectively serves on the Executive Committee, which governs ESIP between annual Assembly business meetings. Professional staff support is provided through the Foundation for Earth Science (FES), who work closely with the Executive Committee.

The work of the ESIP collaboration areas occurs in Committees, Working Groups and Clusters, which allow for formal and informal activities while providing great flexibility and efficiency in addressing emerging topics. The Committees, Working Groups and Clusters are supported by ESIP's suite of collaboration tools (web conferencing, teleconferencing, wikis, etc.) that improve each group’s ability to collaborate in a virtual environment.

Relevant governance documents are linked below and include a ConstitutionBylaws and Strategic Plan.